APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION AD CAELI REGINAM
ON PROCLAIMING THE QUEENSHIP OF MARY
His Holiness Pius XII
October 11, 1954
TO THE VENERABLE BRETHREN, THE PATRIARCHS,
ARCHBISHOPS, BISHIOPS, AND OTHER LOCAL ORDINARIES
IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE HOLY SEE
Venerable Brethren, Health and Apostolic Blessing.
From the earliest ages of the catholic church a Christian
people, whether in time of triumph or more especially in time of
crisis, has addressed prayers of petition and hymns of praise
and veneration to the Queen of Heaven. And never has that hope
wavered which they placed in the Mother of the Divine King,
Jesus Christ; nor has that faith ever failed by which we are
taught that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with a
mother's solicitude over the entire world, just as she is
crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen.
2. Following upon the frightful calamities which before Our very
eyes have reduced flourishing cities, towns, and villages to
ruins, We see to Our sorrow that many great moral evils are
being spread abroad in what may be described as a violent flood.
Occasionally We behold justice giving way; and, on the one hand
and the other, the victory of the powers of corruption. The
threat of this fearful crisis fills Us with a great anguish, and
so with confidence We have recourse to Mary Our Queen, making
known to her those sentiments of filial reverence which are not
Ours alone, but which belong to all those who glory in the name
3. It is gratifying to recall that We ourselves, on the first
day of November of the Holy Year 1950, before a huge multitude
of Cardinals, Bishops, priests, and of the faithful who had
assembled from every part of the world, defined the dogma of the
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into heaven where she
is present in soul and body reigning, together with her only[1a]
Son, amid the heavenly choirs of angels and Saints. Moreover,
since almost a century has passed since Our predecessor of
immortal memory, Pius IX, proclaimed and defined the dogma that
the great Mother of God had been conceived without any stain of
original sin, We instituted the current Marian Year And now
it is a great consolation to Us to see great multitudes here in
Rome - and especially in the Liberian Basilica - giving
testimony in a striking way to their faith and ardent love for
their heavenly Mother. In all parts of the world We learn that
devotion to the Virgin Mother of God is flourishing more and
more, and that the principal shrines of Mary have been visited
and are still being visited by many throngs of Catholic pilgrims
gathered in prayer.
4. It is well known that we have taken advantage of every
opportunity - through personal audiences and radio broadcasts -
to exhort Our children in Christ to a strong and tender love, as
becomes children, for Our most gracious and exalted Mother. On
this point it is particularly fitting to call to mind the radio
message which We addressed to the people of Portugal, when the
miraculous image of the Virgin Mary which is venerated at Fatima
was being crowned with a golden diadem. We Ourselves called
this the heralding of the "sovereignty" of Mary.
5. And now, that We may bring the Year of Mary to a happy and
beneficial conclusion, and in response to petitions which have
come to Us from all over the world, We have decided to institute
the liturgical feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen. This
will afford a climax, as it were, to the manifold demonstrations
of Our devotion to Mary, which the Christian people have
supported with such enthusiasm.
6. In this matter We do not wish to propose a new truth to be
believed by Christians, since the title and the arguments on
which Mary's queenly dignity is based have already been clearly
set forth, and are to be found in ancient documents of the
Church and in the books of the sacred liturgy.
7. It is Our pleasure to recall these things in the present
encyclical letter, that We may renew the praises of Our heavenly
Mother, and enkindle a more fervent devotion towards her, to the
spiritual benefit of all mankind.
8. From early times Christians have believed, and not without
reason, that she of whom was born the Son of the Most High
received privileges of grace above all other beings created by
God. He "will reign in the house of Jacob forever," "the
Prince of Peace," the "King of Kings and Lord of Lords."
And when Christians reflected upon the intimate connection that
obtains between a mother and a son, they readily acknowledged
the supreme royal dignity of the Mother of God.
9. Hence it is not surprising that the early writers of the
Church called Mary "the Mother of the King" and "the Mother of
the Lord," basing their stand on the words of St. Gabriel the
archangel, who foretold that the Son of Mary would reign
forever, and on the words of Elizabeth who greeted her with
reverence and called her "the Mother of my Lord." Thereby
they clearly signified that she derived a certain eminence and
exalted station from the royal dignity of her Son.
10. So it is that St. Ephrem, burning with poetic inspiration,
represents her as speaking in this way: "Let Heaven sustain me
in its embrace, because I am honored above it. For heaven was
not Thy mother, but Thou hast made it Thy throne. How much more
honorable and venerable than the throne of a king is her
mother." And in another place he thus prays to her: ". . .
Majestic and Heavenly Maid, Lady, Queen, protect and keep me
under your wing lest Satan the sower of destruction glory over
me, lest my wicked foe be victorious against me."
11. St. Gregory Nazianzen calls Mary "the Mother of the King of
the universe," and the "Virgin Mother who brought forth the King
of the whole world," while Prudentius asserts that the
Mother marvels "that she has brought forth God as man, and even
as Supreme King."
12. And this royal dignity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is quite
clearly indicated through direct assertion by those who call her
"Lady," "Ruler" and "Queen."
13. In one of the homilies attributed to Origen, Elizabeth calls
Mary "the Mother of my Lord." and even addresses her as "Thou,
14. The same thing is found in the writings of St. Jerome where
he makes the following statement amidst various interpretations
of Mary's name: "We should realize that Mary means Lady in the
Syrian Language." After him St. Chrysologus says the same
thing more explicitly in these words: "The Hebrew word 'Mary'
means 'Domina.' The Angel therefore addresses her as 'Lady' to
preclude all servile fear in the Lord's Mother, who was born and
was called 'Lady' by the authority and command of her own
15. Moreover Epiphanius, the bishop of Constantinople, writing
to the Sovereign Pontiff Hormisdas, says that we should pray
that the unity of the Church may be preserved "by the grace of
the holy and consubstantial Trinity and by the prayers of Mary,
Our Lady, the holy and glorious Virgin and Mother of God."
16. The Blessed Virgin, sitting at the right hand of God to pray
for us is hailed by another writer of that same era in these
words, "the Queen[17a] of mortal man, the most holy Mother of
17. St. Andrew of Crete frequently attributes the dignity of a
Queen to the Virgin Mary. For example, he writes, "Today He
transports from her earthly dwelling, as Queen of the human
race, His ever-Virgin Mother, from whose womb He, the living
God, took on human form."
18. And in another place he speaks of "the Queen of the entire
human race faithful to the exact meaning of her name, who is
exalted above all things save only God himself."
19. Likewise St. Germanus speaks to the humble Virgin in these
words: "Be enthroned, Lady, for it is fitting that you should
sit in an exalted place since you are a Queen and glorious above
all kings." He likewise calls her the "Queen of all of those
who dwell on earth."
20. She is called by St. John Damascene "Queen, ruler, and
lady," and also "the Queen of every creature." Another
ancient writer of the Eastern Church calls her "favored Queen,"
"the perpetual Queen beside the King, her son," whose
"snow-white brow is crowned with a golden diadem."
21. And finally St. Ildephonsus of Toledo gathers together
almost all of her titles of honor in this salutation: "O my
Lady, my Sovereign, You who rule over me, Mother of my Lord . .
. Lady among handmaids, Queen among sisters."
22. The theologians of the Church, deriving their teaching from
these and almost innumerable other testimonies handed down long
ago, have called the most Blessed Virgin the Queen of all
creatures, the Queen of the world, and the Ruler of all.
23. The Supreme Shepherds of the Church have considered it their
duty to promote by eulogy and exhortation the devotion of the
Christian people to the heavenly Mother and Queen. Simply
passing over the documents of more recent Pontiffs, it is
helpful to recall that as early as the seventh century Our
predecessor St. Martin I called Mary "our glorious Lady, ever
Virgin." St. Agatho, in the synodal letter sent to the
fathers of the Sixth Ecumenical Council called her "Our Lady,
truly and in a proper sense the Mother of God." And in the
eighth century Gregory II in the letter sent to St. Germanus,
the patriarch, and read in the Seventh Ecumenical Council with
all the Fathers concurring, called the Mother of God: "The Queen
of all, the true Mother of God," and also "the Queen of all
24. We wish also to recall that Our predecessor of immortal
memory, Sixtus IV, touched favorably upon the doctrine of the
Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, beginning the
Apostolic Letter Cum praeexcelsa with words in which Mary is
called "Queen," "Who is always vigilant to intercede with the
king whom she bore." Benedict XIV declared the same thing in his
Apostolic Letter Gloriosae Dominae, in which Mary is
called "Queen of heaven and earth," and it is stated that the
sovereign King has in some way communicated to her his ruling
25. For all these reasons St. Alphonsus Ligouri, in collecting
the testimony of past ages, writes these words with evident
devotion: "Because the virgin Mary was raised to such a lofty
dignity as to be the mother of the King of kings, it is
deservedly and by every right that the Church has honored her
with the title of 'Queen'."
26. Furthermore, the sacred liturgy, which acts as a faithful
reflection of traditional doctrine believed by the Christian
people through the course of all the ages both in the East and
in the West, has sung the praises of the heavenly Queen and
continues to sing them.
27. Ardent voices from the East sing out: "O Mother of God,
today thou art carried into heaven on the chariots of the
cherubim, the seraphim wait upon thee and the ranks of the
heavenly army bow before thee."
28. Further: "O just, O most blessed (Joseph), since thou art
sprung from a royal line, thou hast been chosen from among all
mankind to be spouse of the pure Queen who, in a way which
defies description, will give birth to Jesus the king." In
addition: "I shall sing a hymn to the mother, the Queen, whom I
joyously approach in praise, gladly celebrating her wonders in
song. . . Our tongue cannot worthily praise thee, O Lady; for
thou who hast borne Christ the king art exalted above the
seraphim. . . Hail, O Queen of the world; hail, O Mary, Queen of
29. We read, moreover, in the Ethiopic Missal: "O Mary, center
of the whole world, . . . thou art greater than the many-eyed
cherubim and the six-winged seraphim . . . Heaven and earth are
filled with the sanctity of thy glory."
30. Furthermore, the Latin Church sings that sweet and ancient
prayer called the "Hail, Holy Queen" and the lovely antiphons
"Hail, Queen of the Heavens," "O Queen of Heaven, Rejoice," and
those others which we are accustomed to recite on feasts of the
Blessed Virgin Mary: "The Queen stood at Thy right hand in
golden vesture surrounded with beauty"; "Heaven and earth
praise thee as a powerful Queen"; "Today the Virgin Mary
ascends into heaven: rejoice because she reigns with Christ
31. To these and others should be added the Litany of Loreto
which daily invites Christian folk to call upon Mary as Queen.
Likewise, for many centuries past Christians have been
accustomed to meditate upon the ruling power of Mary which
embraces heaven and earth, when they consider the fifth glorious
mystery of the rosary which can be called the mystical crown of
the heavenly Queen.
32. Finally, art which is based upon Christian principles and is
animated by their spirit as something faithfully interpreting
the sincere and freely expressed devotion of the faithful, has
since the Council of Ephesus portrayed Mary as Queen and Empress
seated upon a royal throne adorned with royal insignia, crowned
with the royal diadem and surrounded by the host of angels and
saints in heaven, and ruling not only over nature and its powers
but also over the machinations of Satan. Iconography, in
representing the royal dignity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, has
ever been enriched with works of highest artistic value and
greatest beauty; it has even taken the form of representing
colorfully the divine Redeemer crowning His mother with a
33. The Roman Pontiffs, favoring such types of popular devotion,
have often crowned, either in their own persons, or through
representatives, images of the Virgin Mother of God which were
already outstanding by reason of public veneration.
34. As We have already mentioned, Venerable Brothers, according
to ancient tradition and the sacred liturgy the main principle
on which the royal dignity of Mary rests is without doubt her
Divine Motherhood. In Holy Writ, concerning the Son whom Mary
will conceive, We read this sentence: "He shall be called the
Son of the most High, and the Lord God shall give unto him the
throne of David his father, and he shall reign in the house of
Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end," and
in addition Mary is called "Mother of the Lord"; from this
it is easily concluded that she is a Queen, since she bore a son
who, at the very moment of His conception, because of the
hypostatic union of the human nature with the Word, was also as
man King and Lord of all things. So with complete justice St.
John Damascene could write: "When she became Mother of the
Creator, she truly became Queen of every creature."
Likewise, it can be said that the heavenly voice of the
Archangel Gabriel was the first to proclaim Mary's royal office.
35. But the Blessed Virgin Mary should be called Queen, not only
because of her Divine Motherhood, but also because God has
willed her to have an exceptional role in the work of our
eternal salvation. "What more joyful, what sweeter thought can
we have" - as Our Predecessor of happy memory, Pius XI wrote -
"than that Christ is our King not only by natural right, but
also by an acquired right: that which He won by the redemption?
Would that all men, now forgetful of how much we cost Our
Savior, might recall to mind the words, 'You were redeemed, not
with gold or silver which perishes, . . . but with the precious
blood of Christ, as of a Lamb spotless and undefiled. We
belong not to ourselves now, since Christ has bought us 'at a
great price'.", 
36. Now, in the accomplishing of this work of redemption, the
Blessed Virgin Mary was most closely associated with Christ; and
so it is fitting to sing in the sacred liturgy: "Near the cross
of Our Lord Jesus Christ there stood, sorrowful, the Blessed
Mary, Queen of Heaven and Queen of the World." Hence, as the
devout disciple of St. Anselm (Eadmer, ed.) wrote in the Middle
Ages: "just as . . . God, by making all through His power, is
Father and Lord of all, so the blessed Mary, by repairing all
through her merits, is Mother and Queen of all; for God is the
Lord of all things, because by His command He establishes each
of them in its own nature, and Mary is the Queen of all things,
because she restores each to its original dignity through the
grace which she merited.
37. For "just as Christ, because He redeemed us, is our Lord and
king by a special title, so the Blessed Virgin also (is our
queen), on account of the unique manner in which she assisted in
our redemption, by giving of her own substance, by freely
offering Him for us, by her singular desire and petition for,
and active interest in, our salvation."
38. From these considerations, the proof develops on these
lines: if Mary, in taking an active part in the work of
salvation, was, by God's design, associated with Jesus Christ,
the source of salvation itself, in a manner comparable to that
in which Eve was associated with Adam, the source of death, so
that it may be stated that the work of our salvation was
accomplished by a kind of "recapitulation," in which a
virgin was instrumental in the salvation of the human race, just
as a virgin had been closely associated with its death; if,
moreover, it can likewise be stated that this glorious Lady had
been chosen Mother of Christ "in order that she might become a
partner in the redemption of the human race"; and if, in
truth, "it was she who, free of the stain of actual and original
sin, and ever most closely bound to her Son, on Golgotha offered
that Son to the Eternal Father together with the complete
sacrifice of her maternal rights and maternal love, like a new
Eve, for all the sons of Adam, stained as they were by his
lamentable fall," then it may be legitimately concluded that
as Christ, the new Adam, must be called a King not merely
because He is Son of God, but also because He is our Redeemer,
so, analogously, the Most Blessed Virgin is queen not only
because she is Mother of God, but also because, as the new Eve,
she was associated with the new Adam.
39. Certainly, in the full and strict meaning of the term, only
Jesus Christ, the God-Man, is King; but Mary, too, as Mother of
the divine Christ, as His associate in the redemption, in his
struggle with His enemies and His final victory over them, has a
share, though in a limited and analogous way, in His royal
dignity. For from her union with Christ she attains a radiant
eminence transcending that of any other creature; from her union
with Christ she receives the royal right to dispose of the
treasures of the Divine Redeemer's Kingdom; from her union with
Christ finally is derived the inexhaustible efficacy of her
maternal intercession before the Son and His Father.
40. Hence it cannot be doubted that Mary most Holy is far above
all other creatures in dignity, and after her Son possesses
primacy over all. "You have surpassed every creature," sings St.
Sophronius. "What can be more sublime than your joy, O Virgin
Mother? What more noble than this grace, which you alone have
received from God"? To this St. Germanus adds: "Your honor
and dignity surpass the whole of creation; your greatness places
you above the angels." And St. John Damascene goes so far as
to say: "Limitless is the difference between God's servants and
41. In order to understand better this sublime dignity of the
Mother of God over all creatures let us recall that the holy
Mother of God was, at the very moment of her Immaculate
Conception, so filled with grace as to surpass the grace of all
the Saints. Wherefore, as Our Predecessor of happy memory, Pius
IX wrote, God "showered her with heavenly gifts and graces from
the treasury of His divinity so far beyond what He gave to all
the angels and saints that she was ever free from the least
stain of sin; she is so beautiful and perfect, and possesses
such fullness of innocence and holiness, that under God a
greater could not be dreamed, and only God can comprehend the
42. Besides, the Blessed Virgin possessed, after Christ, not
only the highest degree of excellence and perfection, but also a
share in that influence by which He, her Son and our Redeemer,
is rightly said to reign over the minds and wills of men. For if
through His Humanity the divine Word performs miracles and gives
graces, if He uses His Sacraments and Saints as instruments for
the salvation of men, why should He not make use of the role and
work of His most holy Mother in imparting to us the fruits of
redemption? "With a heart that is truly a mother's," to quote
again Our Predecessor of immortal memory, Pius IX, "does she
approach the problem of our salvation, and is solicitous for the
whole human race; made Queen of heaven and earth by the Lord,
exalted above all choirs of angels and saints, and standing at
the right hand of her only [55a] Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, she
intercedes powerfully for us with a mother's prayers, obtains
what she seeks, and cannot be refused." On this point
another of Our Predecessors of happy memory, Leo XIII, has said
that an "almost immeasurable" power has been given Mary in the
distribution of graces; St. Pius X adds that she fills this
office "as by the right of a mother."
43. Let all Christians, therefore, glory in being subjects of
the Virgin Mother of God, who, while wielding royal power, is on
fire with a mother's love.
44. Theologians and preachers, however, when treating these and
like questions concerning the Blessed Virgin, must avoid
straying from the correct course, with a twofold error to guard
against: that is to say, they must beware of unfounded opinions
and exaggerated expressions which go beyond the truth, on the
other hand, they must watch out for excessive narrowness of mind
in weighing that exceptional, sublime, indeed all but divine
dignity of the Mother of God, which the Angelic Doctor teaches
must be attributed to her "because of the infinite goodness that
45. For the rest, in this as in other points of Christian
doctrine, "the proximate and universal norm of truth" is for all
the living Magisterium of the Church, which Christ established
"also to illustrate and explain those matters which are
contained only in an obscure way, and implicitly in the deposit
46. From the ancient Christian documents, from prayers of the
liturgy, from the innate piety of the Christian people, from
works of art, from every side We have gathered witnesses to the
regal dignity of the Virgin Mother of God; We have likewise
shown that the arguments deduced by Sacred Theology from the
treasure store of the faith fully confirm this truth. Such a
wealth of witnesses makes up a resounding chorus which changes
the sublimity of the royal dignity of the Mother of God and of
men, to whom every creature is subject, who is "exalted to the
heavenly throne, above the choirs of angels."
47. Since we are convinced, after long and serious reflection,
that great good will accrue to the Church if this solidly
established truth shines forth more clearly to all, like a
luminous lamp raised aloft, by Our Apostolic authority We decree
and establish the feast of Mary's Queenship, which is to be
celebrated every year in the whole world on the 31st of May. We
likewise ordain that on the same day the consecration of the
human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary be
renewed, cherishing the hope that through such consecration a
new era may begin, joyous in Christian peace and in the triumph
48. Let all, therefore, try to approach with greater trust the
throne of grace and mercy of our Queen and Mother, and beg for
strength in adversity, light in darkness, consolation in sorrow;
above all let them strive to free themselves from the slavery of
sin and offer an unceasing homage, filled with filial loyalty,
to their Queenly Mother. Let her churches be thronged by the
faithful, her feast-days honored; may the beads of the Rosary be
in the hands of all; may Christians gather, in small numbers and
large, to sing her praises in churches, in homes, in hospitals,
in prisons. May Mary's name be held in highest reverence, a name
sweeter than honey and more precious than jewels; may none utter
blasphemous words, the sign of a defiled soul, against that name
graced with such dignity and revered for its motherly goodness;
let no one be so bold as to speak a syllable which lacks the
respect due to her name.
49. All, according to their state, should strive to bring alive
the wondrous virtues of our heavenly Queen and most loving
Mother through constant effort of mind and manner. Thus will it
come about that all Christians, in honoring and imitating their
sublime Queen and Mother, will realize they are truly brothers,
and with all envy and avarice thrust aside, will promote love
among classes, respect the rights of the weak, cherish peace. No
one should think himself a son of Mary, worthy of being received
under her powerful protection, unless, like her, he is just,
gentle and pure, and shows a sincere desire for true
brotherhood, not harming or injuring but rather helping and
50. In some countries of the world there are people who are
unjustly persecuted for professing their Christian faith and who
are deprived of their divine and human rights to freedom; up
till now reasonable demands and repeated protests have availed
nothing to remove these evils. May the powerful Queen of
creation, whose radiant glance banishes storms and tempests and
brings back cloudless skies, look upon these her innocent and
tormented children with eyes of mercy; may the Virgin, who is
able to subdue violence beneath her foot, grant to them that
they may soon enjoy the rightful freedom to practice their
religion openly, so that, while serving the cause of the Gospel,
they may also contribute to the strength and progress of nations
by their harmonious cooperation, by the practice of
extraordinary virtues which are a glowing example in the midst
of bitter trials.
51. By this Encyclical Letter We are instituting a feast so that
all may recognize more clearly and venerate more devoutly the
merciful and maternal sway of the Mother of God. We are
convinced that this feast will help to preserve, strengthen and
prolong that peace among nations which daily is almost destroyed
by recurring crises. Is she not a rainbow in the clouds reaching
towards God, the pledge of a covenant of peace? "Look upon
the rainbow, and bless Him that made it; surely it is beautiful
in its brightness. It encompasses the heaven about with the
circle of its glory, the hands of the Most High have displayed
it." Whoever, therefore, reverences the Queen of heaven and
earth - and let no one consider himself exempt from this tribute
of a grateful and loving soul - let him invoke the most
effective of Queens, the Mediatrix of peace; let him respect and
preserve peace, which is not wickedness unpunished nor freedom
without restraint, but a well-ordered harmony under the rule of
the will of God; to its safeguarding and growth the gentle
urgings and commands of the Virgin Mary impel us.
52. Earnestly desiring that the Queen and Mother of Christendom
may hear these Our prayers, and by her peace make happy a world
shaken by hate, and may, after this exile show unto us all
Jesus, Who will be our eternal peace and joy, to you, Venerable
Brothers, and to your flocks, as a promise of God's divine help
and a pledge of Our love, from Our heart We impart the Apostolic
Given at Rome, from St. Peter's, on the feast of the
Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the eleventh day of
October, 1954, in the sixteenth year of our Pontificate.
1. Cf. constitutio apostolica Munificentissirnus Deus: AAS
XXXXII 1950, p. 753 sq.
1a. The Latin word is Unigena. - Ed.
2. Cf. litt. enc. Fulgens corona: AAS XXXXV, 1953, p. 577 sq.
3. Cf. AAS XXXVIII, 1946, p. 264 sq.
4. Cf. L'Osservatore Romano, d. 19 Maii, a. 1946.
5. Luc. I, 32.
6. Isai. IX, 6.
7. Apoc. XIX, 16.
8. Cf. Luc. I, 32, 33.
9. Luc. I, 43.
10. S. Ephraem, Hymni de B. Maria, ed. Th. J. Lamy, t. II,
Mechliniae, 1886, hymn. XIX, p. 624.
11. Idem, Oratio ad Ssmam Dei Matrem; Opera omnia, Ed. Assemani,
t. III (graece), Romae, 1747, pag. 546.
12. S. Gregorius Naz., Poemata dogmatica, XVIII, v. 58; PG
13. Prudentius, Dittochaeum, XXVII: PL LX, 102 A.
14. Hom. in S. Lucam, hom. VII; ed. Rauer, Origenes' Werke, T.
IX, p. 48 (ex catena Marcarii Chrysocephali). Cf. PG XIII, 1902
15. S. Hieronymus, Liber de nominibus hebraeis: PL XXIII, 886.
16. S. Petrus Chrysologus, Sermo 142, De Annuntiatione B.M.V.:
PL LII, 579 C; cf. etiam 582 B; 584 A: "Regina totius exstitit
17. Relatio Epiphanii Ep. Constantin.: PL LXII, 498 D.
17a. Generally throughout the encyclical the Latin word Regina
is used to describe Mary. In this case and a few others the word
is Domina. "Queen" seems to be the best English equivalent.
"Ruler", when it occurs, is a rendition of Dominatrix. - Ed.
18. Encomium in Dormitionem Ssmae Deiparae (inter opera S.
Modesti): PG LXXXVI, 3306 B.
19. S. Andreas Cretensis, Homilia II in Dormitionem Ssmae
Deiparae: PG XCVII, 1079 B.
20. Id., Homilia III in Dormitionem Ssmae Deiparae: PG XCVII,
21. S. Germanus, In Praesentationem Ssmae Deiparae, I: PG XCVIII,
22. Id., In Praesentationem Ssmae Deiparae, n PG XCVIII, 315 C.
23. S. Ioannes Damascenus, Homilia I in Dormitionem B.M.V.: P.G.
XCVI, 719 A.
24. Id., De fide orthodoxa, I, IV, c. 14: PG XLIV, 1158 B.
25. De laudibus Mariae (inter opera Venantii Fortunati): PL
LXXXVIII, 282 B et 283 A.
26. Ildefonsus Toletanus, De virginitate perpetua B.M.V.: PL
XCVI, 58 A D.
27. S. Martinus I, Epist. XIV: PL LXXXVII, 199-200 A.
28. S. Agatho: PL LXXXVII, 1221 A.
29. Hardouin, Acta Conciliorum, IV, 234; 238: PL LXXXIX, 508 B.
30. Xystus IV, bulla Cum praeexcelsa. d. d. 28 Febr. a. 1476.
31. Benedictus XIV, bulla Gloriosae Dominae, d. d. 27 Sept. a.
32. S. Alfonso, Le glone de Maria, p. I, c. I, §1.
33. Ex liturgia Armenorum: in festo Assumptionis, hymnus ad
34. Ex Menaeo (byzantino): Dominica post Natalem, in Canone, ad
35. Officium hymni Axathistos (in ritu byzantino).
36. Missale Aethiopicum, Anaphora Dominae nostrae Mariae, Matris
37. Brev. Rom., Versiculus sexti Respons.
38. Festum Assumptionis; hymnus Laudum.
39. Ibidem, ad Magnificat II Vesp.
40. Luc. I, 32, 33.
41. Ibid. I, 43.
42. S. Ioannes Damascenus, De fide orthodoxa, 1. IV, c. 14; PL
XCIV, 1158 s. B.
43. I Petr. I, 18, 19.
44. I Cor. VI, 20.
45. Pius XI, litt. enc. Quas primas: AAS XVII, 1925, p. 599.
46. Festum septem dolorum B. Mariae Virg., Tractus.
47. Eadmerus, De excellentia Virginis Mariae, c. 11: PL CLIX,
508 A B.
48. F. Suárez, De mysteriis vitae Christi, disp. XXII, sect. II
(ed Vivès, XIX, 327).
49. S. Irenaeus, Adv. haer., V, 19, 1: PG VII, 1175 B.
50. Pius XI, epist. Auspicatus profecto: AAS XXV, 1933, p. 80.
51. Pius XII, litt. enc. Mystici Corporis: AAS XXXV, 1943, p.
52. S. Sophronius, In annuntianone Beatae Mariae Virginis: PG
LXXXVII, 3238 D; 3242 A.
53. S. Germanus, Hom. II in dormitione Beatae Mariae Virginis:
PG XCVIII, 354 B.
54. S. Ioannes Damascenus, Hom. I in Dormitionem Beatae Mariae
Virginis: PG XCVI, 715 A.
55. Pius IX, bulla Ineffabilis Deus: Acta Pii IX, I, p. 597-598.
55a.Unigena. - Ed.
56. Ibid. p. 618.
57. Leo XIII, litt. enc. Adiumcem populi: ASS, XXVIII,
58. Pius X, litt enc. Ad diem illum: ASS XXXVI, 1903-1904,
59. S. Thomas, Summa Theol., I, q. 25, a. 6, ad 4.
60. Pius XII, litt. enc. Humani generis: AAS XLII, 1950, p. 569.
61. Ex Brev. Rom.: Festum Assumptionis Beatae Mariae Virginis.
62. Cf. Gen. IX, 13.
63. Eccl. XLIII, 12-13.
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